Keywords: Desalination; Condensation; Condenser; Solar Still; Solar Heater; Fresh water

Article Content:-


One method to increase the fresh water productivity of the basin type stills is to increase the condensation rate of their condensing surfaces. A basin type still with an aluminum condenser was fabricated and tested in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Texas Tech University. To increase the condensation rate the outer surface of the condenser was cooled with cooling water at different flow rates with and without woven jute material above it. For the same reason, cotton wick material was installed inside the basin of the still. It was found that the higher the flow rates of the cooling water across the condenser, the greater the condensation rate. Installation of cotton wick material inside the basin of the still and using jute material above the outer side of the condenser also caused an increase in the condensation rate thereby an increase in fresh water productivity of the still. Further, it was found that the maximum fresh water productivity was achieved when both the jute and the wick materials were installed during the experiment and when the condenser was cooled by water at 10 L/hr flow rate.



Kuylenstierna J, Björklund G and Najlis P (2009). Sustainable water future with global implications: everyone’s responsibility, in Natural resources forum, Vol. 21, Wiley Online Library, pp. 181– 190.

Fritzmann C, Löwenberg J, Wintgens T and Melin T (2007). State-of-the-art of reverse osmosis desalination, Desalination 216(1), 1–76.

El-Kady M and El-Shibini F (2001). Desalination in Egypt and the future application in supplementary irrigation, Desalination 136(1), 63–72.

Miller J E (2003). Review of water resources and desalination technologies Sandia National Laboratories Report, SAND2003-0800

Ajeet Singh Sikarwar, Devendra Dandotiya, Surendra Kumar Agrawal (2013), Performance Analysis of Surface Condenser under Various Operating Parameters, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, Vol. 3, Issue 4,pp.416-421

Vikram Haldkar, Abhay Kumar Sharma, R.K.Ranjan and V.K.Bajpai (2013). Parametric Analysis of Surface Condenser for Thermal Power Plant, International Journal of Thermal Technologies, Vol. 3, N 4,pp.155-159

Abu-Arabi, M. and Y. Zurigat. 2005. Year-round comparative study of three types of solar desalination units. Desalination 172: 137-143.

Abu-Arabi, M.; Y. Zurigat; H. Al-Hinai and S. Al-Hiddabi. 2002. Modeling and performance analysis of a solar desalination unit with double-glass cover cooling. Desalination 143: 173-182.

B.A.K. Abu-Hijleh,(1996). Enhanced solar still performance using water film cooling of the glass cover, Desalination 107 235– 244.

Haddad, O.M.; M.A. Al-Nimr and A. Maqableh. 2000. Enhanced solar still performance using a radiative cooling system. Renewable Energy 21(3-4): 459-469.

G.N. Tiwari, H.P. Madhuri, Garg, Effect of water flow over the glass cover of a single basin solar still with an intermittent flow of waste hot water in the basin, Ener. Convers.Manag. 25 (1985) 315–322.

Abu-Hijleh B.A., H.M. Rababa'h, Experimental study of a solar still with spongecubes in basin, Energy Convers. Manage. 44 (2003) 1411–1418.

Bassam AK, Abu-Hijileh, Himzeh M Rababa’h. Experimental study of asolar still with sponge cubes in basin. Energy Conversion and Management 2003;44:1411-8

A.N. Minasian, A.A. Al-Karaghouli, An improved solar still: the wick-basin type, Energy Convers. Manage. 36 (1995) 213–217.

SafwatNafey A, Abdel Kaer M, Abdelmotalip A, Mabrouk A.A. Enhancement of solar still productivity using floating perforated black plate. Energy Conversion and Management 2002;43:937–46.

Sakthivel M, Shanmugasundaram S, Alwarsamy T. An experimental study on regenerative solar still with energy storage medium: jute cloth. Desalination 2010; 264:24–31.

Velmurugan V, Gopalakrishnan M, Raghu R, Srithar K. Single basin solar still with fin for enhancing productivity.Energy Conversion and Management 2008; 49:2602–8.

Cooper PI. Maximum efficiency of single effect solar stills.Solar Energy 1979;15:205.

Tripathi Rajesh, Tiwari GN. Effect of water depth on internal heat and mass transfer for active solar distillation. Desalination 2005;173: 187-200.

Tripathi Rajesh, Tiwari GN. Thermal modeling of passive and active solar stills for different depths of water by using the concept of solar fraction. Solar Energy 2006; 80: 956-67.

Phadatare MK, Verma SK. Influence of water depth on internal heat and mass transfer in a plastic solar still. Desalination 2007; 217: 267-75.


Citation Tools

How to Cite
Mamkagh, A., & Anderson, E. (2018). Condensation Rate Enhancement of the Inclined Condenser in the Solar Still Connected With a Solar Water Heater. Engineering And Technology Journal, 3(10), 492-497.